Category Archives: Maldevelopment

Farmers are being denied their rightful income

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Devinder Sharma writes:

For the past two years we have seen news reports and videos of distraught farmers throwing tomato, potato and onions on to the streets.  Farmers are unable to recover even the harvesting and transportation cost in most cases –  a well-established fact.

One example:

Farmers in Erode district in Tamil Nadu are a worried lot. The retail price of cabbage has crashed. Against a price of Rs 12/kg last year, farmers are getting on an average Re 1 per kg. In Chhattisgarh too, tomato prices have crashed leaving farmers in the lurch. Not fetching more than Rs 1 to 2 per kg, farmers have simply abandoned the tomato harvest. The deplorable price they are getting in the market is not even enough to meet the plucking and harvesting cost.

This is primarily because of higher production which enables the middlemen to form cartels and manipulate the prices often to the extent of exploitation.

This is the third year in a row when prices of almost all the agricultural commodities have crashed across the country. While the increase in production has brought cheers to the government, the drop-in prices has added to the misery of farmers.

Enhancing farm incomes has never been on the top of the economic agenda. Even when it comes to Minimum Support Price, the fact remains that only 6% farmers are able to sell at MSP. The remaining 94% farmers are dependent on the exploitative markets.

After 70 years of Independence, the average income of a farm family in 17 States, roughly half the country, is Rs 20,000 a year as the Economic survey 2016 has shown, the primary cause of the agrarian distress that prevails is before us. The 2016 NCRB data for farmer suicides has made this abundantly clear.

Sharma focuses on the reasons for high levels of farmer suicides: “There are of course a number of reasons that have been cited time and again but essentially everything boils down to the failure of the markets to assure a profitable income”.  

He writes that the latest set of farmer suicide statistics compiled by the National Crime Record Bureau is a clear-cut pointer to the fact that much of the agrarian distress is primarily because farmers are unable to realise a remunerative price for his produce.

The general understanding is that suicides are high in India because roughly 60% of the crop lands do not have assured irrigation facilities.

But in Punjab, which has 98% assured irrigation; the NCRB recorded 271 farm suicides in 2016, an increase of 112% over the 2015 suicide toll of 124. In neighbouring Haryana, which has 82% of the cultivable area provided with assured irrigation; the suicide rate has jumped by 54%, from 162 in 2015 to 250 in 2016.

Another reason openly cited and largely agreed by Ministry of Agriculture, Niti Ayog and even the agricultural universities is that farmers are dying because of low crop productivity.

Higher the crop productivity, higher is the net farm income goes the refrain. But Punjab has the highest crop productivity in the world among cereal crops – wheat, rice and maize – and yet there is hardly a day when I don’t find news report of two, three or four farmers committing suicide. Crop productivity is very high in Haryana, often at the 2nd level after Punjab, and yet it seems farm suicides are increasing.

 (Ed: As Ian Potter often reminds farmers, when exhorted to raise milk production, increased quantities on the market will actually be a factor leading to lower returns).

Policy planning is aimed at ensuring that food grain production registers an increase and it is the failure to assure a profitable income into the hands of farmers that has actually accentuated the agrarian crisis. The Minimum Support Price (MSP) that the government announces for 23 agricultural commodities every year is worked out keeping the consumer prices in mind. More often not, the MSP is lower than the cost of production a farmer entails. No wonder, when farmers undertake cultivation, they don’t realise that they are actually cultivating losses.

Sharma proposes the setting up of State Agricultural Prices Commissions, with the mandates to provide a higher income to farmers, similar to that in Karnataka, which ensures procurement of 14 crops at prices that are much higher than the MSP announced by Central Government.

In his book, AGRICULTURE & RURAL DEVELOPMENT: KARNATAKA – 2020 (extracts available), Dr.Sangappa.V. Mamanshetty, who was born in Karnataka, writes “The main objectives of food management are:

  • procurement of food from farmers at remunerative prices,
  • distribution of food to consumers, particularly the vulnerable sections of society,
  • at affordable prices,
  • and maintenance of food buffers for food security and price stability”.

Sharma summarises: “I am in favour of bringing more areas under irrigation as well as increasing crop productivity. But this must be accompanied by enhanced net income”.  

Main sources: 

http://devinder-sharma.blogspot.co.uk/2018/03/a-call-for-making-minimum-support-price.html

http://devinder-sharma.blogspot.co.uk/2018/03/farmers-suicides-statistics-point.html

 

 

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Farming protest: government responds

Hyderabad’s Siasat Daily reports that tens of thousands of farmers joined the Long March from Nashik to Mumbai last week, organised by All-India Kisan Sabha. The main demands included:

  • debt abolition,
  • an adequate fixed minimum support price for their produce
  • the right to land ownership for the tribal cultivators as part of the 2006 Forest Rights Act.

Narendra Modi’s government agreed to resolve the farmers’ issues within six months and irrigation minister Girish Mahajan said that the government has agreed on 100% of demands, including transfer of land title.

However, in November farmers held huge nationwide strikes to demand agrarian reforms and despite government promises to address their issues, not much was done and tribal lands have been taken by the government for high speed rail and highways.

Devinder Sharma sees a pattern: “For the first four years after coming into power, all ruling parties simply ignore farmers, often creating economic conditions that force them to abandon agriculture and migrate to the cities”.

He stresses that an unprecedented spurt in rural anger has been seen in the past few years with recorded incidents of farm protests multiplying by a staggering 670%, from 628 in 2014 to a record high of 4,837 in 2016 and asks:

“Will the ensuing 2019 elections see a change? I am not sure. Unless of course the farmers realise that enough is enough . . . For 70 years, they have been taken for an easy ride by politicians of all colours, from all parties. They have been victims of the universal phenomenon of “elections and farmers”. A few carrots are invariably thrown at them as electoral bait. And they grab it just like the mice is unable to resist the cheese. They have never been seen as the mainstay of the economy in real terms. Farmers have only two roles – as a vote bank and as a land bank”.

Despite the undertaking given, Sharma adds: “I don’t think the political parties are unduly perturbed. They know that a few months before the elections, a series of sops can be dangled before the farmers and their vote bank will remain intact”.

As around 60–70%% of the Indian population (directly or indirectly) depends upon the agriculture sector according to Puneet Bansal, the director of forecasting and strategy at DRG Group, they could, if resolved, affect the outcome of national elections.

Sharma’s conclusion: “The day the farmers rise above caste, religion and political ideology and vote as farmers, the political landscape will change. The economic policies will also change the day farmers vote as farmers. Farmers will then be in the driving seat, becoming the pivot of economic growth and development. Till then, they must learn to live with the never ending agrarian distress. They must know that the survival battle they fight every day is actually their own doing”.

 

Read the whole article here: http://devinder-sharma.blogspot.co.uk/2018/02/if-bounties-are-being-showered-for.html, or in Hindi https://www.gaonconnection.com/samvad/in-election-season-farmer-is-just-a-vote-bank

Additional information: https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/india-after-huge-marches-government-agrees-farmer-demands

 

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Preserve 3500 Aarey trees: select a site suggested by NEERI/IIT advisers

CHS’ founder, the late Winin Pereira, emphasised the importance of trees as sources of food, medicine, wood and fibre – also their role in mitigating air pollution and absorbing and slowing flood waters. He had amassed a large database recording information about India’s trees.

In a well-read article, The Browning of Harit Mumbai, he wrote “The home of my childhood in Bandra was surrounded by a garden about five to six metres wide on three sides and more on the fourth. About ten coconut trees provided us with fresh neera every morning and ripe and tender fruit. Their leaves, husks and shells were used as fuel. There was a jambul, a fig, a jackfruit, a pomegranate, a ramphal, a tamarind, a badam, a breadfruit, a lime, a bor, a kavath, several neem, sitaphal, drumstick, papaya and chiku, four rose-apple, three mango, two guava, and one pear tree – but no partridge”.

There is great public concern about the decision to cut down 3500 trees in the Aarey Colony to make way for car sheds for the new Metro, though experts from National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (Neeri) and Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Powai (Mumbai) have suggested Kanjurmarg, Backbay and Kalina as a better option.

There is still time to sign this petition.

120,843 have signed and the organisers want to reach 150,000. They have clearly warned all of the consequences Mumbai will face in terms of flooding and loss of open space & wildlife, if the Metro depot is built in Aarey.

The latest news on Facebook (17.12.17) is of 22-year-old Yash Marwah’s poem on the real meaning of ‘Vikaas’ – of progress and development – that all readers and PM Modi and CM Devendra Fadnavis should hear.

At the end of November it was reported that children and teachers from a Malad west based convent school marched to oppose the civic authority’s decision to destroy Aarey greenery and other natural areas in order to build Metro car sheds.  The journalist commented that it is a government aided school and marching – in effect – against the government is quite a daring move to try to save ‘Aarey Green patch’.

See the video here: http://6dnews.com/school-children-protest-aarey-metro-shed/. Be patient – this is a slow-loading site.

Set aside time for this comprehensive presentation of the subject and its implications by tree-champion Zoru Bhathena. Scroll down to October 15th https://www.facebook.com/zoru.bhathena.

As Winin Pereira wrote decades ago:

“We should prevent the cutting down of trees and plant more of them. Every leaf that grows serves to fix some of the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Seeds of herbs, shrubs and trees need to be collected by the million and they should be planted wherever there are a few square centimetres of barren land”. [See Natural versus Formal Forestry”, MPSM, December 1987, NO472]

 

 

 

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Farmers have been subsidising the nation

So says Devinder Sharma, in India’s APN News, a respected and widely watched news channel:

“The economic crisis farmers are facing is compounded by the denial of a rightful income to farmers for their produce. To keep food inflation under control it is the farmers who have paid the price. What we don’t realize is that it is the farmers who have been subsidising the nation all these years.

“Farmers are in distress throughout the country, be it in Karnataka, Punjab, Maharashtra or UP. Why has the situation reached these extreme levels and what can be done to reverse this trend?

“The Economic Survey 2016 had clearly pointed to the severity of the prevailing agrarian crisis. Accordingly, the average annual income of a farm family in 17 states of India is a paltry Rs 20,000. This means that the average monthly income for a farm household in these 17 states is less than Rs 1,700.

Most of us who live in cities have a monthly mobile bill exceeding this

I shudder to think how farmers survive with such meagre income . . . I thought this revelation alone should have shocked the country and forced policy planners to undertake immediate steps to address the grave tragedy. But unfortunately, nothing of that sort happened.

And, as in UK: “Our planners can’t think beyond what is prescribed in textbooks. Increasing crop productivity, expanding irrigation and reducing the cost of production as the way forward . . .” (see next week’s post here)

There is a high rate of suicide in the farming communities of India and UK, compared with other occupational groups.  Over the past 21 years, India’s National Crime Record Bureau reports that more than 3.18 lakh farmers have committed suicide. In secretive England such records are out of date or confined to abstruse medical journals, giving the public to assume that all is well.

Sharma emphasises that the burden food producers carry is not one of low productivity but the lack of a fair price providing an assured farm income and this is true in both countries.

Farmers from the southern state of Tamil Nadu display skulls, who they claim are the remains of Tamil farmers who have committed suicide, during a protest demanding a drought-relief package from the federal government, in New Delhi, India March 22, 2017. REUTERS/Cathal McNaughton

http://english.alarabiya.net/en/variety/2017/03/23/Why-Indian-farmers-brought-human-skulls-to-this-protest-.html

In both countries already affluent middlemen in retail, packaging and transport or speculating in food futures have prospered while those who actually work and produce food – in particular fresh milk, fruit and vegetables – are denied a fair price covering production and living costs.

 

 

 

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Antibiotic and antifungal drug residues in water sources around Hyderabad

 

Visitors from seven countries selected news from Devinder Sharma as the top post this week. He had written about Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath, believing that he is on the right track to revive UP agriculture. CHS founder Winin Pereira, who wrote about ‘breaking the cycle of debt and dependency’ might well have agreed with Sharma.

Last week we received news about a major study published in the scientific journal Infection. It found “excessively high” levels of antibiotic and antifungal drug residue in water sources in and around a major drug production hub in the Indian city of Hyderabad, as well as high levels of bacteria and fungi resistant to those drugs.

It pointed out that the presence of drug residues in the natural environment allows the microbes living there to build up resistance to the ingredients in the medicines that are supposed to kill them.

In this report the issue of industrial pollution from pharmaceutical companies was considered as it affects consumers of their medicines – a serious issue as resistance could leads to the deaths of many.

A detailed account of the every day impact on local people who are using those water sources  is given in a report by Changing Markets, an organisation with a mission to expose irresponsible corporate practices and drive change towards a more sustainable economy. The report opens by saying that a 2015 report from the Indian Government estimates that the number of contaminated waterways has more than doubled in the past five years and that half the country’s rivers are now polluted. An extract relating to the pollution of water by pharmaceutical companies in Hyderabad follows:

“The social and environmental costs of the development of Hyderabad’s bulk drug industry are plain to see in the neighbourhoods and villages surrounding the industrial areas, and have been well-documented over a period of decades.

“Inhabitants living and working in the vicinity of drug manufacturing units in Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, and other locations have borne the brunt of this. It has affected their livelihoods in the form of livestock deaths and decreased agricultural yields and damaged their health, with reported impacts ranging from higher abortion rates to birth defects and stunted growth in children, as well as greater incidence of skin diseases.

“However, the response from both the central government and the state authorities has been woefully inadequate, not to say complicit, and over the years, irresponsible drug manufacturers have enjoyed free rein to continue pumping vast quantities of untreated or inadequately treated pharmaceutical waste into the environment”.

Read the full report here: http://changingmarkets.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Impacts-of-pharmaceutical-pollution-on-communities-and-environment-in-India-WEB-light.pdf

 

 

 

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Update from VRI: Amarpurkashi, Uttar Pradesh – mission accomplished

vri2logoThe first entry about the International Task Force for the Rural Poor was made on this website in 2010, opening, “Australian born Jyoti and Mukat Singh set up the International Task Force for the Rural Poor [INTAF] twenty years ago after seeing that most well-intentioned policies of various governments to uplift the rural poor have either failed or proved ineffective”.

Read about their work on the VRI website.

In addition to routine activities, connected with the school, polytechnic, eye camps and sustainable farming initiatives, VRI took part in a campaign against industrial pollution in and around the village of Amarpurkashi, covered here in 2011. Mill owners had been dumping live ash on the roadside where cyclists and pedestrians walked or rode and many suffered serious burns. Tons of ash from two paper mills were deposited on the banks of the river and by national highway 93, coating buildings and plants in a black dust, harming passersby and residents. As a result of breathing such heavily polluted air, local people developed respiratory problems – in the worst affected areas, as many as 1 in 2 people suffered from asthma.

The stench of chemical effluents polluted the air of the surrounding villages and black dust from the factory chimney blew far and wide. The water table dropped dramatically as the factories used huge amounts of water and all the roadside ponds dried up. The underground water supply was also polluted, causing a rise in the number of people suffering from jaundice and villagers were forced to pay for ever-deeper borings to ensure a clean water supply.

As part of the campaign, VRI’s co-founder, Mukat Singh, and many other local people fasted, an agreement was reached with the Sub-Divisional Magistrate and decisions were made which addressed the problem.

mukat_and_jyoti_2005VRI have now decided it is time to close the volunteering scheme that had run for some 35 years and Jyoti recently visited APK to make sure that this was the right decision. She explains:

“I am glad to say that everything I saw in the project supported it.  Amarpurkashi is no longer a suitable place for volunteers, although visitors will always be welcome.“There is no longer anyone in the project who can guide and help volunteers. This has always been an important part of the scheme.  Volunteers definitely need someone, preferably a woman since most of our volunteers have been women. However, that person has to be able to speak reasonable English and be able to help volunteers with the use of toilets and bathrooms, the food and various customs around eating and so on.  There is no one now who can do that.

“It is also essential that there is something for a volunteer to get involved in while they are in the project.  However, the success of the project means that there is nothing now that a volunteer can do.  The project is fully staffed with local people.  Volunteers have always had difficulties because of the language barrier and significant differences in the way things are done in India”.

She ended by saying that the scheme was closed at exactly the right time and adds that “Fortunately, there are many new projects to be found on the internet where volunteers from abroad can be recruited for specific roles”.

We wish Jyoti and Mukat a peaceful and rewarding retirement.

 

 

 

Is Bt cotton ‘terrific’ Sir Richard? Or a failing costly, weed and pest infested monoculture?

sirrichardrobertsSir Richard John Roberts is an  English  biochemist  and molecular biologist living in America. Though his expertise is in medical research, the Times of India reports that he has expressed great admiration for BT cotton grown in India, describing it as “terrific”. Addressing the media after a lecture at Amity University on Wednesday evening, Roberts said that green outfits must admit that they were wrong in “spreading lies” around the issue.

Roberts is a part of a global campaign, “Support Precision Agriculture”. He called upon farmers and religious leaders to form a ‘grand movement’ to support the GM cause.

He is said to have ‘launched a tirade’ against Greenpeace, which has been running anti-GM crops campaigns, saying that it was interested only in raising funds which they were getting from the campaign – and has Monsanto no interest in profits?

A few of the problems recorded on our database: 1998 – 2017

1998

gm-coverOn 2.12.98 the Times of India reported that the farmers’ organisation Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha (KRRS) said it would file cases against Monsanto India & Maycho, the Central & State governments, under the Union Seed Act for allowing Monsanto to conduct field trials of cotton in the country.

See the references given in Science, Agriculture and the Politics of Policy: The Case of Biotechnology By Ian Scoones, cover right. 

2001

In July 2001 a national convention on biotechnology organised by the Andhra Pradesh Coalition For Diversity, Deccan Development Society in Hyderabad, was addressed by Devinder Sharma who was one of the first to record the development of resistance to the chemicals used on Bt cotton to control the American bollworm.

2002

In 2002 Ashish Kothari of Kalpavriksh wrote letters to chief ministers of four states to stay the introduction of the crop till its safety is established. In the letters he attached a Xinhua news report, of which we have a copy, citing a study by the Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, under the Chinese Government’s State Environment Protection Administration.

The study had the following major conclusions:

1. In Bt Cotton fields compared to conventional cotton, there was a marked decrease in the diversity of insects, and a higher incidence of pests;

2. In Bt Cotton fields, there was a decline in the population of the natural enemies of the bollworm (the major pest that Bt Cotton is supposed to safeguard the crop against);

3. In Bt Cotton fields, populations of pests other than bollworm (above left) had increased, and some would likely become major problems for the cotton, against which Bt Cotton may have no resistance;

4. Bollworm was likely to develop resistance to Bt Cotton within 8-10 years of beginning the planting, thereby affecting the long-term sustainability of the production process.  

In the following years these problems have persisted and become greater

2005

The Hindu Businessline reported that the Andhra Pradesh Government had decided to move the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (MRTPC) against Mahyco-Monsanto Biotechnology Company on the “exorbitant” royalty being collected by it for Bt cotton. The State Agriculture Minister, Mr N. Raghuveera Reddy explained that, in the last three years, cotton farmers in Andhra Pradesh bought Bt seeds worth Rs. 130 crore. “Of this, Rs.78 crore went to Monsanto (as royalty),” he said. “The seed grower gets less than Rs. 250 for 750 gm. The farmer is asked to pay Rs. 1,850 for 450 gm. This is not reasonable. Royalty should be calculated in a scientific manner”.

The Business Standard reported that the Nagpur-based Central Institute of Cotton Research (CICR) found Bt cotton becomes ineffective in its resistance to bollworms after 110 days.

2008

Eureka Alert, a one-stop science news distribution service, recorded the University of Arizona’s report of the first documented case of weed resistance in biotech cotton in America.

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Source: Ian Heap, director of the International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds, based in Corvallis, Oregon.

2013

The May issue of Nature recorded that glyphosate-resistant weeds have now been found in 18 countries worldwide, with significant impacts in Brazil, Australia, Argentina and Paraguay. Since the late 1990s, US farmers had widely adopted GM cotton engineered to tolerate the herbicide glyphosate, which is marketed as Roundup by Monsanto in St Louis, Missouri. The herbicide–crop combination worked spectacularly well — until it didn’t. In 2004, herbicide-resistant amaranth was found in one county in Georgia; by 2011, it had spread to 76. “It got to the point where some farmers were losing half their cotton fields to the weed,” says Holder. Twenty-four glyphosate-resistant weed species have been identified since Roundup-tolerant crops were introduced in 1996.

2015

The Hindu newspaper reported KRRS’s request for the State government to ensure that Bt cotton companies pay compensation to farmers whose crops were destroyed by corn earworm across the State.

2016

In June the Times of India published news that the Nagpur-based Central Institute of Cotton Research had reported a ‘major dip’ in the demand for genetically modified Bt cotton seeds that kharif season and a sharp increase in use of local varieties of cotton seeds instead of Bt in the northern states: 72,280 hectares of indigenous varieties of cotton were being grown in northern states, against about 3,000 hectares last year.

bollworm2

The Deccan Chronicle reported that the pink bollworm has been cited in thousands of hectares of cotton crop in Guntur and some parts of Anantapur in Andhra Pradesh. The state government also decided to issue notices to the seed companies ‘as per Seed Act 1966’. Bt cotton crops in Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Karnataka also had bollworm attacks. Maharashtra and Karnataka also issued notices to the seed manufacturing companies.

The International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) in its 75th plenary meeting in Islamabad, Pakistan, demanded that the country revert to traditional varieties of cotton and conventional methods of insect control to improve crop productivity (Dawn newspaper)

“Bt cotton is a total failure in Pakistan as it has created new bugs and insects which were never seen in the past. First the government imposed a ban on the introduction of Bt cotton in Pakistan in 2005, but later allowed it after different interests, including seed companies in connivance with agriculture ministries and departments, launched the propaganda that Bt cotton will control all worms except the Army worm and sucking pests”, said Ali Muhammad of Lodhran district, who has been growing cotton since 1980s.

Endnote:

Ashish Kothari said: “Please note that many of these fears that environmentalists have been raising, were dismissed by the corporate sector and by some scientists as being speculative and unwarranted. These fears can no longer be dismissed so lightly, we hope”.

In September 2016, The Hindustan Times reported that there are potential conflicts of interest: most of the scientists who serve as regulators are developing GM crops and several officials who sit on India’s biotech regulator, which is preparing to take a decision on genetically modified mustard, are also associated with global organisations that lobby for GM crops.