Category Archives: Winin Pereira

Antibiotic and antifungal drug residues in water sources around Hyderabad

 

Visitors from seven countries selected news from Devinder Sharma as the top post this week. He had written about Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath, believing that he is on the right track to revive UP agriculture. CHS founder Winin Pereira, who wrote about ‘breaking the cycle of debt and dependency’ might well have agreed with Sharma.

Last week we received news about a major study published in the scientific journal Infection. It found “excessively high” levels of antibiotic and antifungal drug residue in water sources in and around a major drug production hub in the Indian city of Hyderabad, as well as high levels of bacteria and fungi resistant to those drugs.

It pointed out that the presence of drug residues in the natural environment allows the microbes living there to build up resistance to the ingredients in the medicines that are supposed to kill them.

In this report the issue of industrial pollution from pharmaceutical companies was considered as it affects consumers of their medicines – a serious issue as resistance could leads to the deaths of many.

A detailed account of the every day impact on local people who are using those water sources  is given in a report by Changing Markets, an organisation with a mission to expose irresponsible corporate practices and drive change towards a more sustainable economy. The report opens by saying that a 2015 report from the Indian Government estimates that the number of contaminated waterways has more than doubled in the past five years and that half the country’s rivers are now polluted. An extract relating to the pollution of water by pharmaceutical companies in Hyderabad follows:

“The social and environmental costs of the development of Hyderabad’s bulk drug industry are plain to see in the neighbourhoods and villages surrounding the industrial areas, and have been well-documented over a period of decades.

“Inhabitants living and working in the vicinity of drug manufacturing units in Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, and other locations have borne the brunt of this. It has affected their livelihoods in the form of livestock deaths and decreased agricultural yields and damaged their health, with reported impacts ranging from higher abortion rates to birth defects and stunted growth in children, as well as greater incidence of skin diseases.

“However, the response from both the central government and the state authorities has been woefully inadequate, not to say complicit, and over the years, irresponsible drug manufacturers have enjoyed free rein to continue pumping vast quantities of untreated or inadequately treated pharmaceutical waste into the environment”.

Read the full report here: http://changingmarkets.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Impacts-of-pharmaceutical-pollution-on-communities-and-environment-in-India-WEB-light.pdf

 

 

 

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A game-changer for Uttar Pradesh farmers?

Devinder Sharma thinks Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath is on the right track to revive UP agriculture. CHS founder Winin Pereira, who wrote about ‘breaking the cycle of debt and dependency’ might well have agreed with Sharma.

The minister has decided to scrap outstanding loans of small and marginal farmers up to a maximum limit of Rs 1-lakh each and at the same time expand wheat procurement operations. He aims to purchase 80 lakh tonnes of wheat at the minimum support price and 5,000 purchase centres are being set up. Uttar Pradesh is likely to reinvigorate farming by ensuring an assured price to farmers.

The state government will also strike Rs 5,630-crore of bank default, saving 7 lakh farmers from having their assets put up for auction.

Sharma believes that the political courage to write-off such a huge amount, including loans taken from nationalized banks, has to be applauded – but the State Bank of India chairperson Arundhati Bhattacharya has already lamented that farm loan waiver destroys ‘credit discipline’ making farmers habitual defaulters.

“This smacks of double standards”, Sharma comments. The entire farm loan waiver that UP has provided is less than the bad debt of just one big steel company — Jindal Steel & Power, which owes Rs 44,140-crore. Bhushan Steel too has a bad debt of Rs 44,478-crore. These two big industries are among the steel companies, which together are seeking a loan waiver of Rs 1.5 lakh crore.

In another article in the Orissa Post, Sharma quotes, the Chief Economic Advisor Arvind Subramaniam is on record as saying that writing-off of bad loans of the corporate sector makes economic sense. “This is how capitalism works,” he said. ”If this is true”, Sharma adds, “I don’t know why capitalism doesn’t work the same way for farmers”.

There is now pressure on the newly-elected government in Punjab for a farm loan waiver of approximately Rs 36,000-crore. Maharashtra has been demanding Rs 30,500-crore for farm loan write-off. Considering that more than 3.18 lakh farmers have committed suicide across the country in the past 21 years, and roughly 70% of these suicides are related to mounting indebtedness.

 

Sharma considers that UP’s farm loan waiver will turn out to be a game changer and also expanding the procurement system would transform Indian agriculture. A network of mandis exists in Punjab, Haryana and to some extent in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu but every year farmers from western UP carry truckloads of wheat to be sold in the neighbouring border districts of Haryana – ample indication that wheat farmers in UP were not able to sell locally at the support price.

According to the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) there are more than 7,000 APMC regulated mandis in the country. If markets have to be provided at a radius of 5 kms from every village, India would need 42,000. Such a vast network, if constructed, could prevent distress sales and ensure income security for farmers. If UP takes the lead, it will emerge as a trendsetter and create a new model for agriculture.

An economically attractive agriculture is the first step to stop rural to urban migration. And that’s what Yogi Adityanath has said his aim is – to stop migration from rural areas – and that was a cause near to the heart of CHS’ founder.  

Summarised from Devinder Sharma’s article in Ground Reality 4/15/2017. See also http://www.orissapost.com/epaper/110417/p8.htm

 

 

 

Devinder Sharma visits Kadar tribal people in Kerala

Bringing back memories of CHS co-founder Winin Pereira’s visits to live with and learn from adivasis in Alonde, Devinder Sharma writes about his recent journey:

Deep in the forests of Vazhachal-Sholayar in the Western Ghats, I met Maya. She is a tribal belonging to the Kadar tribe. Faced with extinction, there are only about 1400 Kadar in the world, of which about 850 live in the tribal settlements in Thrissur district in Kerala (about 150-200 kms from Kochi in Kerala).

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They depend on forest resources for their sustenance. Home to hornbills, elephants and over 200 animal species, the Vazhachal-Sholayar forests are rich in resources for the Kadar tribes to bank upon. Since the Kadar tribes have not been traditionally into agriculture, the maintenance and conservation of forest resources is vital to them. Maya, along with a few more, had camped on the big rocks on the banks of a rivulet.

To learn more about them, Usha Soolapani and Sridhar R from Thanal in Thiruvanthapuram and I decided to walk up the rocks to meet some of them camping there. With just bare necessities, which includes a few aluminum utensils, a few clothes and a couple of bed sheets, Maya has been camping here for about two months. A frail puppy was tied outside the makeshift tent. The condition of the tent can be seen in the accompanying picture.  Usha and Sridhar did the talking being able to converse in Malayalam as well as Tamil. Maya told us that the entire family gets out into the forests to search and collect some tubers which are used in cosmetics, along with honey and a couple of minor produce. Sridhar Radhakrishnan tells me this tuber plant is called Manjakoova in Malayalam. It is an Yellow Arrowroot. She gets about Rs 100/kg for the cut and dried root tubers. You can see a picture of it in her hand.

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It is heartening to know that WWF-India had earlier initiated a dialogue with the Forest Department to set up a simple honey filtration unit for the Kadar communities. A benefit sharing mechanism from honey sale through the Forest Development Agency was also worked out. I am not aware of how this mechanism works. Since the Kadar have immense knowledge about ethnobotany I see an immense potential of documenting the traditional knowledge of some of the lesser known properties of the plant species found abundantly in these forests. It will be good to know of the benefits in monetary terms, if any.

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When they move to inside of the evergreen forest they put their essentials on a machan (platform) so that it escapes the eyes of wild animals. I asked Maya if she was content with her living conditions. She said yes and when I suggested why doesn’t she move to the nearby town she flatly refused. She told us that she and her family were very happy with what they are doing.

(Winin Pereira would have applauded her)

But perhaps the next generations will look at it differently. Her four children are in a school for tribals. I only hope the next generation helps to improve the lifestyle, and helps to strengthen the bonding with nature, using modern technology and expertise while at the same time making an economic transformation.

(And debated these points with Devinder)

But I only hope the next generation does not push for a complete abandonment of the tribal culture.

(Both would agree on this) 

Posted by Devinder Sharma to Ground Reality

 

 

 

‘From Western Science to Liberation Technology’

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Celebrating People’s Knowledge

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A colleague recently ‘e-introduced’ a young researcher from the UK pursuing an MPhil in Anthropology at Pune University, who wants to study the evolution of community led environmental movements in India based on indigenous knowledge.

Information has been sent and the enquiry led to the discovery of the text of ‘ ‘From Western Science to Liberation Technology’, by Winin Pereira – first published in July 1990 (Anusandan, Bombay), revised Indian edition 1993, pp 83, Earthcare Books, (out of print)

Chapter Titles: 

Western Science and Technology.

Western Science and Domination.

The Economics of Western Science.

Western Science as a Common Heritage.

Western Science as Self‑Destructive and Unsustainable.

The Question of Ethics.

Liberation Science and Technology.

Liberation Technology.

Liberation Science.

Living in an Unjust World.

Conclusion.

This book may be accessed here as a pdf: western-science-a4format10213

 

 

 

Misguided proposals to relocate/evict human beings for ‘wildlife-rich areas’

Earlier this year the Indian environment’s Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change ministry published a “draft national forest policy 2016” on its website, with a call for comments.

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The Hindu reports that the draft policy, a review and revision of existing forest policy, was prepared by the Bhopal-based Indian Institute of Forest Management which proposed that: “Voluntary and attractive relocation packages of villages from within national parks, other wildlife rich areas and corridors should be developed.” The proposal to relocate/evict people from the vaguely described “other wildlife rich areas” and “corridors” as well as National Parks and Tiger Reserves would cover a huge area affecting millions of tribal people who have been dependent on and managed their environments for millennia.

Survival International, the global movement for tribal peoples’ rights, says that tribal peoples are being illegally evicted from their ancestral homelands across India in the name of conservation. Most so-called “voluntary relocations” are far from voluntary, says Survival, with tribal people often given no choice – they face arrest and beatings, harassment, threats and trickery and feel forced to “agree” to leave their forest homes.

CHS co-founder, the late Winin Pereira, lived for periods in an adivasi (tribal) area, learning from their traditional knowledge and culture. He became aware of a whole system of village self-reliance in which the resources of their forests, pastures and wetlands were sparingly used to meet the needs of the local people from time immemorial, see a reference from his book Tending the Earth.

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He would have agreed that evidence proves that tribal peoples are better at looking after their environment than anyone else. In the Biligiriranganatha Swamy Temple (BRT) Wildlife Sanctuary tiger reserve in southern India (above)where tribal people have been allowed to stay, tiger numbers have increased at above the national average. There is no reason to believe that evicting tribes helps tigers. In fact, it is harming conservation.

However, a few days later the “policy” was removed, and a statement was issued claiming that the document was merely a study by the Indian Institute of Forest Management, which had been “inadvertently uploaded.” But Indian news website Live Mint quoted an anonymous ministry official: “[The] U-turn came after intense criticism of the draft policy from civil society.”

An agency reporter notes that the speedy withdrawal of this “draft policy” has been welcomed, but adds that concern remains at what lies ahead for the tens of millions of India’s tribal people and others who live in forests.

 

 

 

The Adivasi Academy in Gujarat

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A lead about the Adivasi Academy in Gujarat was seen on the website of Local Futures/International Society for Ecology and Culture.

CHS-Sachetan’s co-founder, Winin Pereira, valued the thinking of one of its founders, Helena Norberg-Hodge, linguist and author of ‘Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh’, writing:

Winin Pereira3“Regarding Helena’s book, I am not merely “delighted” but astounded at the similar conclusions drawn, almost as if we are reading each other’s minds. In some cases she has used expressions very similar to mine . . . Also amazing is the fact that two communities so different in nature (one in the cold, resource-poor region of Ladakh and the other in the tropical, high-resource area of Maharashtra; one highly religious and the other animist) should have similar customs and culture”.

The website continued: Adivasis – tribal groups considered to be the aboriginal population of India – are facing powerful social and economic pressures that lead many to abandon their own language in favour of Hindi, Gujarati, or English.

Warlis carrying firewoodWarlis carrying firewood

CHS’ co-founder, Winin Pereira studied and recorded the Warli culture for many years. As Shabnam, daughter of Nergis Irani, wrote during the finally successful campaign opposing the plan to build a P&O port in Vadhavan: “We are all fighting to protect what both him and us love so much. In the future – providing that the adivasi culture is allowed to survive – others will be able to continue his work in recording adivasi lore etc. His work and the knowledge he provides will provide an inspiration for many (as it did to me). It will be used in many ways for the Warlis and in ‘selling’ to the rest of the world the idea that theirs is a progressive culture, not ‘backward’ and should not only be allowed to survive but emulated”.

Winin and colleagues in Jeevan Nirwaha Niketan, offered healthcare and education to children from disadvantaged families, who repeatedly fail the school entrance or end-of-year tests. The curriculum stressed the values of a just participatory and sustainable society, based on Indian culture. It was delivered first in Marathi; in the final grade, five, Hindi was introduced and a working knowledge of English imparted. Research has found that early years’ teaching in the mother tongue is most effective – see the references here. The director’s report records that by 1984, there were seven social work sections housed in different parts of Andheri and four hundred participants, not counting families and others in surrounding communities.adivasi academyThe Adivasi Academy, based in Tejgadh, Gujarat, is trying to save the endangered languages of the linguistically diverse Indian subcontinent and to show its students that their native languages and cultures are worth preserving. It has been established to create a unique educational environment for the study of tribal communities and aims to become an institute for the study of tribal history, folklore, cultural geography, social dynamics, economy, development studies, medicine, music, arts and theatre.

The building is an example of eco-friendly and cost effective construction, using entirely local materials and labour, bringing to mind the clay structures designed by Keralan architect, Laurie Baker.

In the early days of the Academy, it was decided that formal educational qualification need not be the most serious consideration for being appointed as member of faculty at the Academy. At least one batch of students was trained by Shri Mansing Rathwa, who has never attended a school, but is a tremendous painter of Pithora, and Dr. Bhagwandas Patel, a highly accomplished folklore scholar—forming a single team for conducting classes for Museuology students learning to organise, arrange and manage museums. Young journalists and expert filmmakers have come together to teach the students of Media Studies.mahua treeRajmohan Gandhi, Mahashweta Devi, Justice M N Venkatachaliah have lectured the students, sitting on the rock under the famous mahua tree at the Academy, and lectured students ranging from 7 to 30 in age.

The Faculty has a mix of young postgraduates drawn from Adivasi communities and visiting scholars including Prof. Shereen Ratnagar, Prof. Lachman Khubchandani and Dr Ashish Kothari.

The Sorosoro website records that Ganesh Devy, former professor at Yale, arrived in Gujarat in the 90s to teach at Baroda University and made contact with a large number of indigenous tribes in the area. He sat under a tree one day and listened to village youngsters as they spoke about the way they envision their future, and what should be done to help their communities develop. Today some of those youngsters hold key positions in the academy:

“The air here is filled with a sense of peace, serene joy, pleasure for togetherness, and pride in showing short-term visitors what has been accomplished: a genuine economic and cultural development center for native populations”.

Most desi cows and buffalo breeds give A2 milk

The fascination for exotic cattle breeds has been the bane of Indian dairy industry”. We return to these words by CHS co-founder Winin Pereira, first entered on this site after reading Devinder Sharma’s 2010 blog quoted in the CHS-Sachetan archives

gir cow2In a recent blog, Sharma informs us that India’s Ministry of Agriculture is setting up two research stations to improve the neglected breeds and Rajasthan is the first State to appoint a Minister for Cow Affairs.

Like Pereira, Mr Sharma dispels the myth that all Indian cows are low in productivity. They both remind us that several Indian cow breeds – Gir (above left), Kankrej, Ongole, Sahiwal among others — are doing well in Brazil. Milk yield from Gir in Brazil has now crossed 70 litres. Sharma adds that ‘ironically, semen of pure bred Indian breeds is now being imported from Brazil into India’.

In his widely appreciated passage about India’s Kasaragod Dwarf breed, Sharma added “The milk is nutritious, rich in alpha-2 casein proteins which means it is particularly useful for diabetic and hypertension patients”.

The writer had not heard of this A2 milk from cows whose milk is free from the A1 protein. It is recommended for people who are diagnosed as being ‘lactose intolerant’ – suffering from abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhoea and/or constipation after consuming milk. Note a sceptical Wiki entry – which might have a commercial bias.

devinder sharma 3Sharma reports that the sale of A2 milk in Britain and Ireland has reached Rs 10- crore in just one year after its launch and is now available in 1,000 stores there. He continues: “In Australia and New Zealand, A2 milk is now the fastest growing with a share of 8% of the milk market, the sales increasing by 57% in a year . . . Meanwhile, China has emerged as a strong market for A2 milk after the scandal surrounding the sale of spurious baby milk powder some years back . . .

“What makes it more significant and relevant for us is that most desi cows and buffalo breeds contain A2 allele gene. In other words, 100 per cent of milk of desi cattle breeds contains the A2 allele making it richer in nutrients and much healthier than the milk of exotic cattle breeds.

“If you are not drinking A2 milk, the chances are that in the long term you are likely to suffer from allergies, diabetes, obesity and cardio-vascular diseases. While the exotic cattle breeds may be producing higher milk but because of the concentration of A1 allele gene in their bodies, the milk they produce is much inferior in quality.

“Studies by the National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR), Karnal, have established the superiority of A2 milk in Indian breeds. In a detailed study scanning 22 desi breeds recently, it found A2 allele to be 100 per cent available in the five high-yielding milk breeds – Red Sindhi, Gir, Rathi, Shahiwal and Tharparkar. In the remaining breeds, the availability of A2 allele gene was 94 per cent. Comparatively, in the exotic breeds Jersey and Holstein Friesian, the availability of A2 allele gene is very low.

“The economic cost of promoting desi breeds is relatively much higher given the health advantages, especially in a population where diabetes, cardio-vascular diseases, allergies, digestive disorders are on an upswing. Since A2 milk builds up immunity, it certainly offers a big advantage over the commonly sold milk.

“In India, I am sure consumers would be willing to pay a premium if Mother Dairy and Amul for instance is able to sell A2 milk in pouches. At the same time, promotion for A2 milk will help farmers shift to traditional breeds which very well integrate with natural farming systems. Promotion of A2 milk will also make hundreds of gaushalas spread across the State turn economically viable”.